Darwin Core quick reference guide

This page provides a list of all currently recommended terms of the Darwin Core standard. Categories such as Occurrence or Event correspond to Darwin Core classes which group other terms. Convenient files of these terms and their full history can be found in the Darwin Core repository.

Record-level

type Property
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/type
DefinitionThe nature or genre of the resource.
CommentsMust be populated with a value from the DCMI type vocabulary (http://dublincore.org/documents/2010/10/11/dcmi-type-vocabulary/).
ExamplesStillImage, MovingImage, Sound, PhysicalObject, Event, Text
modified Property
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
DefinitionThe most recent date-time on which the resource was changed.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a date that conforms to ISO 8601:2004(E).
Examples1963-03-08T14:07-0600 (8 Mar 1963 at 2:07pm in the time zone six hours earlier than UTC). 2009-02-20T08:40Z (20 February 2009 8:40am UTC). 2018-08-29T15:19 (3:19pm local time on 29 August 2018). 1809-02-12 (some time during 12 February 1809). 1906-06 (some time in June 1906). 1971 (some time in the year 1971). 2007-03-01T13:00:00Z/2008-05-11T15:30:00Z (some time during the interval between 1 March 2007 1pm UTC and 11 May 2008 3:30pm UTC). 1900/1909 (some time during the interval between the beginning of the year 1900 and the end of the year 1909). 2007-11-13/15 (some time in the interval between 13 November 2007 and 15 November 2007).
language Property
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/language
DefinitionA language of the resource.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use RFC 5646 as a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesen (for English), es (for Spanish)
license Property
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/license
DefinitionA legal document giving official permission to do something with the resource.
Comments
Exampleshttp://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
rightsHolder Property
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/rightsHolder
DefinitionA person or organization owning or managing rights over the resource.
Comments
ExamplesThe Regents of the University of California
accessRights Property
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/accessRights
DefinitionInformation about who can access the resource or an indication of its security status. Access Rights may include information regarding access or restrictions based on privacy, security, or other policies.
Comments
Examplesnot-for-profit use only, https://www.fieldmuseum.org/field-museum-natural-history-conditions-and-suggested-norms-use-collections-data-and-images
bibliographicCitation Property
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/bibliographicCitation
DefinitionA bibliographic reference for the resource as a statement indicating how this record should be cited (attributed) when used.
CommentsRecommended practice is to include sufficient bibliographic detail to identify the resource as unambiguously as possible.
ExamplesSpecimen example: Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, UC Berkeley. MVZ Mammal Collection (Arctos). Record ID: http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MVZ:Mamm:165861?seid=101356. Source: http://ipt.vertnet.org:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mvz_mammal. Taxon example: Oliver P. Pearson. 1985. Los tuco-tucos (genera Ctenomys) de los Parques Nacionales Lanin y Nahuel Huapi, Argentina Historia Natural, 5(37):337-343..
references Property
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/references
DefinitionA related resource that is referenced, cited, or otherwise pointed to by the described resource.
Comments
Exampleshttp://arctos.database.museum/guid/MVZ:Mamm:165861, http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/show_species_details.php?record_id=6197868
institutionID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/institutionID
DefinitionAn identifier for the institution having custody of the object(s) or information referred to in the record.
CommentsFor physical specimens, the recommended best practice is to use an identifier from a collections registry such as the Global Registry of Biodiversity Repositories (http://grbio.org/).
Exampleshttp://biocol.org/urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34777, http://grbio.org/cool/km06-gtbn
collectionID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/collectionID
DefinitionAn identifier for the collection or dataset from which the record was derived.
CommentsFor physical specimens, the recommended best practice is to use an identifier from a collections registry such as the Global Registry of Biodiversity Repositories (http://grbio.org/).
Exampleshttp://biocol.org/urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:1001, http://grbio.org/cool/p5fp-c036
datasetID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/datasetID
DefinitionAn identifier for the set of data. May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to a collection or institution.
Comments
Examplesb15d4952-7d20-46f1-8a3e-556a512b04c5
institutionCode Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/institutionCode
DefinitionThe name (or acronym) in use by the institution having custody of the object(s) or information referred to in the record.
Comments
ExamplesMVZ, FMNH, CLO, UCMP
collectionCode Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/collectionCode
DefinitionThe name, acronym, coden, or initialism identifying the collection or data set from which the record was derived.
Comments
ExamplesMammals, Hildebrandt, EBIRD, VP
datasetName Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/datasetName
DefinitionThe name identifying the data set from which the record was derived.
Comments
ExamplesGrinnell Resurvey Mammals, Lacey Ctenomys Recaptures
ownerInstitutionCode Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/ownerInstitutionCode
DefinitionThe name (or acronym) in use by the institution having ownership of the object(s) or information referred to in the record.
Comments
ExamplesNPS, APN, InBio
basisOfRecord Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/basisOfRecord
DefinitionThe specific nature of the data record.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use the standard label of one of the Darwin Core classes.
ExamplesPreservedSpecimen, FossilSpecimen, LivingSpecimen, MaterialSample, Event, HumanObservation, MachineObservation, Taxon, Occurrence
informationWithheld Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/informationWithheld
DefinitionAdditional information that exists, but that has not been shared in the given record.
Comments
Exampleslocation information not given for endangered species, collector identities withheld | ask about tissue samples
dataGeneralizations Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/dataGeneralizations
DefinitionActions taken to make the shared data less specific or complete than in its original form. Suggests that alternative data of higher quality may be available on request.
Comments
ExamplesCoordinates generalized from original GPS coordinates to the nearest half degree grid cell.
dynamicProperties Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/dynamicProperties
DefinitionA list of additional measurements, facts, characteristics, or assertions about the record. Meant to provide a mechanism for structured content.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a key:value encoding schema for a data interchange format such as JSON.
Examples{"heightInMeters":1.5}, {"tragusLengthInMeters":0.014, "weightInGrams":120}, {"natureOfID":"expert identification", "identificationEvidence":"cytochrome B sequence"}, {"relativeHumidity":28, "airTemperatureInCelsius":22, "sampleSizeInKilograms":10}, {"aspectHeading":277, "slopeInDegrees":6}, {"iucnStatus":"vulnerable", "taxonDistribution":"Neuquén, Argentina"}

Occurrence

Occurrence Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/Occurrence
DefinitionAn existence of an Organism (sensu http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/Organism) at a particular place at a particular time.
Comments
ExamplesA wolf pack on the shore of Kluane Lake in 1988. A virus in a plant leaf in a the New York Botanical Garden at 15:29 on 2014-10-23. A fungus in Central Park in the summer of 1929.
occurrenceID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/occurrenceID
DefinitionAn identifier for the Occurrence (as opposed to a particular digital record of the occurrence). In the absence of a persistent global unique identifier, construct one from a combination of identifiers in the record that will most closely make the occurrenceID globally unique.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a persistent, globally unique identifier.
Exampleshttp://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:233627, 000866d2-c177-4648-a200-ead4007051b9, urn:catalog:UWBM:Bird:89776
catalogNumber Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/catalogNumber
DefinitionAn identifier (preferably unique) for the record within the data set or collection.
Comments
Examples145732, 145732a, 2008.1334, R-4313
recordNumber Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/recordNumber
DefinitionAn identifier given to the Occurrence at the time it was recorded. Often serves as a link between field notes and an Occurrence record, such as a specimen collector's number.
Comments
ExamplesOPP 7101
recordedBy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/recordedBy
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups, or organizations responsible for recording the original Occurrence. The primary collector or observer, especially one who applies a personal identifier (recordNumber), should be listed first.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
ExamplesJosé E. Crespo. Oliver P. Pearson | Anita K. Pearson (where the value in recordNumber OPP 7101 corresponds to the collector number for the specimen in the field catalog of Oliver P. Pearson).
individualCount Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/individualCount
DefinitionThe number of individuals represented present at the time of the Occurrence.
Comments
Examples0, 1, 25
organismQuantity Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/organismQuantity
DefinitionA number or enumeration value for the quantity of organisms.
CommentsA dwc:organismQuantity must have a corresponding dwc:organismQuantityType.
Examples27 (organismQuantity) with individuals (organismQuantityType). 12.5 (organismQuantity) with %biomass (organismQuantityType). r (organismQuantity) with BraunBlanquetScale (organismQuantityType).
organismQuantityType Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/organismQuantityType
DefinitionThe type of quantification system used for the quantity of organisms.
CommentsA dwc:organismQuantityType must have a corresponding dwc:organismQuantity.
Examples27 (organismQuantity) with individuals (organismQuantityType). 12.5 (organismQuantity) with %biomass (organismQuantityType). r (organismQuantity) with BraunBlanquetScale (organismQuantityType).
sex Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/sex
DefinitionThe sex of the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesfemale, male, hermaphrodite
lifeStage Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/lifeStage
DefinitionThe age class or life stage of the biological individual(s) at the time the Occurrence was recorded.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesegg, eft, juvenile, adult
reproductiveCondition Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/reproductiveCondition
DefinitionThe reproductive condition of the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesnon-reproductive, pregnant, in bloom, fruit-bearing
behavior Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/behavior
DefinitionThe behavior shown by the subject at the time the Occurrence was recorded.
Comments
Examplesroosting, foraging, running
establishmentMeans Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/establishmentMeans
DefinitionThe process by which the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence became established at the location.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesnative, introduced, naturalised, invasive, managed
occurrenceStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/occurrenceStatus
DefinitionA statement about the presence or absence of a Taxon at a Location.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplespresent, absent
preparations Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/preparations
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of preparations and preservation methods for a specimen.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
Examplesfossil, cast, photograph, DNA extract, skin | skull | skeleton, whole animal (ETOH) | tissue (EDTA)
disposition Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/disposition
DefinitionThe current state of a specimen with respect to the collection identified in collectionCode or collectionID.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesin collection, missing, voucher elsewhere, duplicates elsewhere
associatedMedia Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedMedia
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers (publication, global unique identifier, URI) of media associated with the Occurrence.
Comments
Exampleshttp://arctos.database.museum/SpecimenImages/UAMObs/Mamm/2/P7291179.JPG, http://204.140.246.24/Fish/Collection%20Pictures/10118-00.jpg | http://204.140.246.24/Fish/Collection%20Pictures/10118-00a.jpg
associatedReferences Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedReferences
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers (publication, bibliographic reference, global unique identifier, URI) of literature associated with the Occurrence.
Comments
Exampleshttp://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/322/5899/261, Christopher J. Conroy, Jennifer L. Neuwald. 2008. Phylogeographic study of the California vole, Microtus californicus Journal of Mammalogy, 89(3):755-767., Steven R. Hoofer and Ronald A. Van Den Bussche. 2001. Phylogenetic Relationships of Plecotine Bats and Allies Based on Mitochondrial Ribosomal Sequences. Journal of Mammalogy 82(1):131-137. | Walker, Faith M., Jeffrey T. Foster, Kevin P. Drees, Carol L. Chambers. 2014. Spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) microsatellite discovery using illumina sequencing. Conservation Genetics Resources.
associatedSequences Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedSequences
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers (publication, global unique identifier, URI) of genetic sequence information associated with the Occurrence.
Comments
Exampleshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/U34853.1, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/GU328060 | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AF326093
associatedTaxa Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedTaxa
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers or names of taxa and their associations with the Occurrence.
Comments
Examples"host":"Quercus alba", "parasitoid of":"Cyclocephala signaticollis" | "predator of":"Apis mellifera"
otherCatalogNumbers Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/otherCatalogNumbers
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of previous or alternate fully qualified catalog numbers or other human-used identifiers for the same Occurrence, whether in the current or any other data set or collection.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
ExamplesFMNH:Mammal:1234, NPS YELLO6778 | MBG 33424
occurrenceRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/occurrenceRemarks
DefinitionComments or notes about the Occurrence.
Comments
Examplesfound dead on road

Organism

Organism Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/Organism
DefinitionA particular organism or defined group of organisms considered to be taxonomically homogeneous.
CommentsInstances of the dwc:Organism class are intended to facilitate linking one or more dwc:Identification instances to one or more dwc:Occurrence instances. Therefore, things that are typically assigned scientific names (such as viruses, hybrids, and lichens) and aggregates whose occurrences are typically recorded (such as packs, clones, and colonies) are included in the scope of this class.
ExamplesA specific bird. A specific wolf pack. A specific instance of a bacterial culture.
organismID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/organismID
DefinitionAn identifier for the Organism instance (as opposed to a particular digital record of the Organism). May be a globally unique identifier or an identifier specific to the data set.
Comments
Exampleshttp://arctos.database.museum/guid/WNMU:Mamm:1249
organismName Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/organismName
DefinitionA textual name or label assigned to an Organism instance.
Comments
ExamplesHuberta, Boab Prison Tree, J pod
organismScope Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/organismScope
DefinitionA description of the kind of Organism instance. Can be used to indicate whether the Organism instance represents a discrete organism or if it represents a particular type of aggregation.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. This term is not intended to be used to specify a type of taxon. To describe the kind of dwc:Organism using a URI object in RDF, use rdf:type (http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type) instead.
Examplesmulticellular organism, virus, clone, pack, colony
associatedOccurrences Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedOccurrences
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers of other Occurrence records and their associations to this Occurrence.
Comments
Exampleshttp://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:292063?seid=3175067 | http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:292063?seid=3177393 | http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:292063?seid=3177394 | http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:292063?seid=3177392 | http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:292063?seid=3609139
associatedOrganisms Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedOrganisms
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers of other Organisms and their associations to this Organism.
Comments
Examples"sibling of":"DMNS:Mamm http://arctos.database.museum/guid/DMNS:Mamm:14171", "parent of":"MSB:Mamm http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:196208" | "parent of":"MSB:Mamm http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:196523" | "sibling of":"MSB:Mamm http://arctos.database.museum/guid/MSB:Mamm:142638"
previousIdentifications Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/previousIdentifications
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of previous assignments of names to the Organism.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
ExamplesChalepidae, Pinus abies, Anthus sp., field ID by G. Iglesias | Anthus correndera, expert ID by C. Cicero 2009-02-12 based on morphology
organismRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/organismRemarks
DefinitionComments or notes about the Organism instance.
Comments
ExamplesOne of a litter of six

MaterialSample

MaterialSample Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/MaterialSample
DefinitionA physical result of a sampling (or subsampling) event. In biological collections, the material sample is typically collected, and either preserved or destructively processed.
Comments
ExamplesA whole organism preserved in a collection. A part of an organism isolated for some purpose. A soil sample. A marine microbial sample.
materialSampleID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/materialSampleID
DefinitionAn identifier for the MaterialSample (as opposed to a particular digital record of the material sample). In the absence of a persistent global unique identifier, construct one from a combination of identifiers in the record that will most closely make the materialSampleID globally unique.
Comments
Examples06809dc5-f143-459a-be1a-6f03e63fc083

Event

Event Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/Event
DefinitionAn action that occurs at some location during some time.
Comments
ExamplesA specimen collection process. A camera trap image capture. A marine trawl.
eventID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventID
DefinitionAn identifier for the set of information associated with an Event (something that occurs at a place and time). May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to the data set.
Comments
ExamplesINBO:VIS:Ev:00009375
parentEventID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/parentEventID
DefinitionAn identifier for the broader Event that groups this and potentially other Events.
CommentsUse a globally unique identifier for a dwc:Event or an identifier for a dwc:Event that is specific to the data set.
ExamplesA1 (parentEventID to identify the main Whittaker Plot in nested samples, each with its own eventID - A1:1, A1:2).
fieldNumber Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/fieldNumber
DefinitionAn identifier given to the event in the field. Often serves as a link between field notes and the Event.
Comments
ExamplesRV Sol 87-03-08
eventDate Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventDate
DefinitionThe date-time or interval during which an Event occurred. For occurrences, this is the date-time when the event was recorded. Not suitable for a time in a geological context.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a date that conforms to ISO 8601:2004(E).
Examples1963-03-08T14:07-0600 (8 Mar 1963 at 2:07pm in the time zone six hours earlier than UTC). 2009-02-20T08:40Z (20 February 2009 8:40am UTC). 2018-08-29T15:19 (3:19pm local time on 29 August 2018). 1809-02-12 (some time during 12 February 1809). 1906-06 (some time in June 1906). 1971 (some time in the year 1971). 2007-03-01T13:00:00Z/2008-05-11T15:30:00Z (some time during the interval between 1 March 2007 1pm UTC and 11 May 2008 3:30pm UTC). 1900/1909 (some time during the interval between the beginning of the year 1900 and the end of the year 1909). 2007-11-13/15 (some time in the interval between 13 November 2007 and 15 November 2007).
eventTime Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventTime
DefinitionThe time or interval during which an Event occurred.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a time that conforms to ISO 8601:2004(E).
Examples14:07-0600 (2:07pm in the time zone six hours earlier than UTC). 08:40:21Z (8:40:21am UTC). 13:00:00Z/15:30:00Z (the interval between 1pm UTC and 3:30pm UTC).
startDayOfYear Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/startDayOfYear
DefinitionThe earliest ordinal day of the year on which the Event occurred (1 for January 1, 365 for December 31, except in a leap year, in which case it is 366).
Comments
Examples1 (1 January). 366 (31 December), 365 (30 December in a leap year, 31 December in a non-leap year).
endDayOfYear Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/endDayOfYear
DefinitionThe latest ordinal day of the year on which the Event occurred (1 for January 1, 365 for December 31, except in a leap year, in which case it is 366).
Comments
Examples1 (1 January). 32 (1 February). 366 (31 December). 365 (30 December in a leap year, 31 December in a non-leap year).
year Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/year
DefinitionThe four-digit year in which the Event occurred, according to the Common Era Calendar.
Comments
Examples1160, 2008
month Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/month
DefinitionThe ordinal month in which the Event occurred.
Comments
Examples1 (January). 10 (October).
day Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/day
DefinitionThe integer day of the month on which the Event occurred.
Comments
Examples9, 28
verbatimEventDate Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimEventDate
DefinitionThe verbatim original representation of the date and time information for an Event.
Comments
Examplesspring 1910, Marzo 2002, 1999-03-XX, 17IV1934
habitat Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/habitat
DefinitionA category or description of the habitat in which the Event occurred.
Comments
Examplesoak savanna, pre-cordilleran steppe
samplingProtocol Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/samplingProtocol
DefinitionThe name of, reference to, or description of the method or protocol used during an Event.
Comments
ExamplesUV light trap, mist net, bottom trawl, ad hoc observation, point count, Penguins from space: faecal stains reveal the location of emperor penguin colonies, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00467.x, Takats et al. 2001. Guidelines for Nocturnal Owl Monitoring in North America. Beaverhill Bird Observatory and Bird Studies Canada, Edmonton, Alberta. 32 pp., http://www.bsc-eoc.org/download/Owl.pdf
sampleSizeValue Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/sampleSizeValue
DefinitionA numeric value for a measurement of the size (time duration, length, area, or volume) of a sample in a sampling event.
CommentsA sampleSizeValue must have a corresponding sampleSizeUnit.
Examples5 for sampleSizeValue with metre for sampleSizeUnit.
sampleSizeUnit Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/sampleSizeUnit
DefinitionThe unit of measurement of the size (time duration, length, area, or volume) of a sample in a sampling event.
CommentsA sampleSizeUnit must have a corresponding sampleSizeValue, e.g., 5 for sampleSizeValue with metre for sampleSizeUnit.
Examplesminute, hour, day, metre, square metre, cubic metre
samplingEffort Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/samplingEffort
DefinitionThe amount of effort expended during an Event.
Comments
Examples40 trap-nights, 10 observer-hours, 10 km by foot, 30 km by car
fieldNotes Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/fieldNotes
DefinitionOne of a) an indicator of the existence of, b) a reference to (publication, URI), or c) the text of notes taken in the field about the Event.
Comments
ExamplesNotes available in the Grinnell-Miller Library.
eventRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventRemarks
DefinitionComments or notes about the Event.
Comments
ExamplesAfter the recent rains the river is nearly at flood stage.

Location

Location Class
Identifierhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/Location
DefinitionA spatial region or named place.
Comments
ExamplesThe municipality of San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina. The place defined by a georeference.
locationID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/locationID
DefinitionAn identifier for the set of location information (data associated with dcterms:Location). May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to the data set.
Comments
Exampleshttps://opencontext.org/subjects/768A875F-E205-4D0B-DE55-BAB7598D0FD1
higherGeographyID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/higherGeographyID
DefinitionAn identifier for the geographic region within which the Location occurred.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a persistent identifier from a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
Exampleshttp://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/1002002 (Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur, Territorio Nacional de la Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).
higherGeography Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/higherGeography
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of geographic names less specific than the information captured in the locality term.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ), with terms in order from least specific to most specific.
ExamplesNorth Atlantic Ocean. South America | Argentina | Patagonia | Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi | Neuquén | Los Lagos (with accompanying values South America in continent, Argentina in country, Neuquén in stateProvince, and Los Lagos in county.
continent Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/continent
DefinitionThe name of the continent in which the Location occurs.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
ExamplesAfrica, Antarctica, Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, South America
waterBody Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/waterBody
DefinitionThe name of the water body in which the Location occurs.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
ExamplesIndian Ocean, Baltic Sea, Hudson River, Lago Nahuel Huapi
islandGroup Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/islandGroup
DefinitionThe name of the island group in which the Location occurs.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
ExamplesAlexander Archipelago, Archipiélago Diego Ramírez, Seychelles
island Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/island
DefinitionThe name of the island on or near which the Location occurs.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
ExamplesNosy Be, Bikini Atoll, Vancouver, Viti Levu, Zanzibar
country Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/country
DefinitionThe name of the country or major administrative unit in which the Location occurs.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
ExamplesDenmark, Colombia, España
countryCode Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/countryCode
DefinitionThe standard code for the country in which the Location occurs.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use an ISO 3166-1-alpha-2 country code.
ExamplesAR, SV
stateProvince Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/stateProvince
DefinitionThe name of the next smaller administrative region than country (state, province, canton, department, region, etc.) in which the Location occurs.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
ExamplesMontana, Minas Gerais, Córdoba
county Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/county
DefinitionThe full, unabbreviated name of the next smaller administrative region than stateProvince (county, shire, department, etc.) in which the Location occurs.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
ExamplesMissoula, Los Lagos, Mataró
municipality Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/municipality
DefinitionThe full, unabbreviated name of the next smaller administrative region than county (city, municipality, etc.) in which the Location occurs. Do not use this term for a nearby named place that does not contain the actual location.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
ExamplesHolzminden, Araçatuba, Ga-Segonyana
locality Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/locality
DefinitionThe specific description of the place. Less specific geographic information can be provided in other geographic terms (higherGeography, continent, country, stateProvince, county, municipality, waterBody, island, islandGroup). This term may contain information modified from the original to correct perceived errors or standardize the description.
Comments
ExamplesBariloche, 25 km NNE via Ruta Nacional 40 (=Ruta 237).
verbatimLocality Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimLocality
DefinitionThe original textual description of the place.
Comments
Examples25 km NNE Bariloche por R. Nac. 237
minimumElevationInMeters Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/minimumElevationInMeters
DefinitionThe lower limit of the range of elevation (altitude, usually above sea level), in meters.
Comments
Examples-100, 802
maximumElevationInMeters Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/maximumElevationInMeters
DefinitionThe upper limit of the range of elevation (altitude, usually above sea level), in meters.
Comments
Examples-205, 1236
verbatimElevation Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimElevation
DefinitionThe original description of the elevation (altitude, usually above sea level) of the Location.
Comments
Examples100-200 m
minimumDepthInMeters Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/minimumDepthInMeters
DefinitionThe lesser depth of a range of depth below the local surface, in meters.
Comments
Examples0, 100
maximumDepthInMeters Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/maximumDepthInMeters
DefinitionThe greater depth of a range of depth below the local surface, in meters.
Comments
Examples0, 200
verbatimDepth Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimDepth
DefinitionThe original description of the depth below the local surface.
Comments
Examples100-200 m
minimumDistanceAboveSurfaceInMeters Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/minimumDistanceAboveSurfaceInMeters
DefinitionThe lesser distance in a range of distance from a reference surface in the vertical direction, in meters. Use positive values for locations above the surface, negative values for locations below. If depth measures are given, the reference surface is the location given by the depth, otherwise the reference surface is the location given by the elevation.
Comments
Examples-1.5 (below the surface). 4.2 (above the surface). For a 1.5 meter sediment core from the bottom of a lake (at depth 20m) at 300m elevation: verbatimElevation: 300m minimumElevationInMeters: 300, maximumElevationInMeters: 300, verbatimDepth: 20m, minimumDepthInMeters: 20, maximumDepthInMeters: 20, minimumDistanceAboveSurfaceInMeters: 0, maximumDistanceAboveSurfaceInMeters: -1.5.
maximumDistanceAboveSurfaceInMeters Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/maximumDistanceAboveSurfaceInMeters
DefinitionThe greater distance in a range of distance from a reference surface in the vertical direction, in meters. Use positive values for locations above the surface, negative values for locations below. If depth measures are given, the reference surface is the location given by the depth, otherwise the reference surface is the location given by the elevation.
Comments
Examples-1.5 (below the surface). 4.2 (above the surface). For a 1.5 meter sediment core from the bottom of a lake (at depth 20m) at 300m elevation: verbatimElevation: 300m minimumElevationInMeters: 300, maximumElevationInMeters: 300, verbatimDepth: 20m, minimumDepthInMeters: 20, maximumDepthInMeters: 20, minimumDistanceAboveSurfaceInMeters: 0, maximumDistanceAboveSurfaceInMeters: -1.5.
locationAccordingTo Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/locationAccordingTo
DefinitionInformation about the source of this Location information. Could be a publication (gazetteer), institution, or team of individuals.
Comments
ExamplesGetty Thesaurus of Geographic Names, GADM
locationRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/locationRemarks
DefinitionComments or notes about the Location.
Comments
Examplesunder water since 2005
decimalLatitude Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude
DefinitionThe geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
Comments
Examples-41.0983423
decimalLongitude Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude
DefinitionThe geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.
Comments
Examples-121.1761111
geodeticDatum Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/geodeticDatum
DefinitionThe ellipsoid, geodetic datum, or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geographic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude as based.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use the EPSG code of the SRS, if known. Otherwise use a controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the geodetic datum, if known. Otherwise use a controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the ellipsoid, if known. If none of these is known, use the value unknown.
ExamplesEPSG:4326, WGS84, NAD27, Campo Inchauspe, European 1950, Clarke 1866, unknown
coordinateUncertaintyInMeters Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/coordinateUncertaintyInMeters
DefinitionThe horizontal distance (in meters) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location. Leave the value empty if the uncertainty is unknown, cannot be estimated, or is not applicable (because there are no coordinates). Zero is not a valid value for this term.
Comments
Examples30 (reasonable lower limit of a GPS reading under good conditions if the actual precision was not recorded at the time). 71 (uncertainty for a UTM coordinate having 100 meter precision and a known spatial reference system).
coordinatePrecision Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/coordinatePrecision
DefinitionA decimal representation of the precision of the coordinates given in the decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude.
Comments
Examples0.00001 (normal GPS limit for decimal degrees). 0.000278 (nearest second). 0.01667 (nearest minute). 1.0 (nearest degree).
pointRadiusSpatialFit Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/pointRadiusSpatialFit
DefinitionThe ratio of the area of the point-radius (decimalLatitude, decimalLongitude, coordinateUncertaintyInMeters) to the area of the true (original, or most specific) spatial representation of the Location. Legal values are 0, greater than or equal to 1, or undefined. A value of 1 is an exact match or 100% overlap. A value of 0 should be used if the given point-radius does not completely contain the original representation. The pointRadiusSpatialFit is undefined (and should be left blank) if the original representation is a point without uncertainty and the given georeference is not that same point (without uncertainty). If both the original and the given georeference are the same point, the pointRadiusSpatialFit is 1.
CommentsDetailed explanations with graphical examples can be found in the Guide to Best Practices for Georeferencing, Chapman and Wieczorek, eds. 2006.
ExamplesDetailed explanations with graphical examples can be found in the Guide to Best Practices for Georeferencing, Chapman and Wieczorek, eds. 2006.
verbatimCoordinates Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimCoordinates
DefinitionThe verbatim original spatial coordinates of the Location. The coordinate ellipsoid, geodeticDatum, or full Spatial Reference System (SRS) for these coordinates should be stored in verbatimSRS and the coordinate system should be stored in verbatimCoordinateSystem.
Comments
Examples41 05 54S 121 05 34W, 17T 630000 4833400
verbatimLatitude Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimLatitude
DefinitionThe verbatim original latitude of the Location. The coordinate ellipsoid, geodeticDatum, or full Spatial Reference System (SRS) for these coordinates should be stored in verbatimSRS and the coordinate system should be stored in verbatimCoordinateSystem.
Comments
Examples41 05 54.03S
verbatimLongitude Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimLongitude
DefinitionThe verbatim original longitude of the Location. The coordinate ellipsoid, geodeticDatum, or full Spatial Reference System (SRS) for these coordinates should be stored in verbatimSRS and the coordinate system should be stored in verbatimCoordinateSystem.
Comments
Examples121d 10' 34" W
verbatimCoordinateSystem Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimCoordinateSystem
DefinitionThe spatial coordinate system for the verbatimLatitude and verbatimLongitude or the verbatimCoordinates of the Location.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesdecimal degrees, degrees decimal minutes, degrees minutes seconds, UTM
verbatimSRS Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimSRS
DefinitionThe ellipsoid, geodetic datum, or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which coordinates given in verbatimLatitude and verbatimLongitude, or verbatimCoordinates are based.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use the EPSG code of the SRS, if known. Otherwise use a controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the geodetic datum, if known. Otherwise use a controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the ellipsoid, if known. If none of these is known, use the value unknown.
Examplesunknown, EPSG:4326, WGS84, NAD27, Campo Inchauspe, European 1950, Clarke 1866
footprintWKT Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/footprintWKT
DefinitionA Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the shape (footprint, geometry) that defines the Location. A Location may have both a point-radius representation (see decimalLatitude) and a footprint representation, and they may differ from each other.
Comments
ExamplesPOLYGON ((10 20, 11 20, 11 21, 10 21, 10 20)) (the one-degree bounding box with opposite corners at longitude=10, latitude=20 and longitude=11, latitude=21)
footprintSRS Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/footprintSRS
DefinitionA Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the Spatial Reference System (SRS) for the footprintWKT of the Location. Do not use this term to describe the SRS of the decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude, even if it is the same as for the footprintWKT - use the geodeticDatum instead.
Comments
ExamplesGEOGCS["GCS_WGS_1984", DATUM["D_WGS_1984", SPHEROID["WGS_1984",6378137,298.257223563]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0], UNIT["Degree",0.0174532925199433]] (WKT for the standard WGS84 Spatial Reference System EPSG:4326).
footprintSpatialFit Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/footprintSpatialFit
DefinitionThe ratio of the area of the footprint (footprintWKT) to the area of the true (original, or most specific) spatial representation of the Location. Legal values are 0, greater than or equal to 1, or undefined. A value of 1 is an exact match or 100% overlap. A value of 0 should be used if the given footprint does not completely contain the original representation. The footprintSpatialFit is undefined (and should be left blank) if the original representation is a point and the given georeference is not that same point. If both the original and the given georeference are the same point, the footprintSpatialFit is 1.
CommentsDetailed explanations with graphical examples can be found in the Guide to Best Practices for Georeferencing, Chapman and Wieczorek, eds. 2006.
ExamplesDetailed explanations with graphical examples can be found in the Guide to Best Practices for Georeferencing, Chapman and Wieczorek, eds. 2006.
georeferencedBy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/georeferencedBy
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups, or organizations who determined the georeference (spatial representation) for the Location.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
ExamplesBrad Millen (ROM), Kristina Yamamoto | Janet Fang
georeferencedDate Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/georeferencedDate
DefinitionThe date on which the Location was georeferenced.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a date that conforms to ISO 8601:2004(E).
Examples1963-03-08T14:07-0600 (8 Mar 1963 at 2:07pm in the time zone six hours earlier than UTC). 2009-02-20T08:40Z (20 February 2009 8:40am UTC). 2018-08-29T15:19 (3:19pm local time on 29 August 2018). 1809-02-12 (some time during 12 February 1809). 1906-06 (some time in June 1906). 1971 (some time in the year 1971). 2007-03-01T13:00:00Z/2008-05-11T15:30:00Z (some time during the interval between 1 March 2007 1pm UTC and 11 May 2008 3:30pm UTC). 1900/1909 (some time during the interval between the beginning of the year 1900 and the end of the year 1909). 2007-11-13/15 (some time in the interval between 13 November 2007 and 15 November 2007).
georeferenceProtocol Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/georeferenceProtocol
DefinitionA description or reference to the methods used to determine the spatial footprint, coordinates, and uncertainties.
Comments
ExamplesGuide to Best Practices for Georeferencing. (Chapman and Wieczorek, eds. 2006). Global Biodiversity Information Facility., MaNIS/HerpNet/ORNIS Georeferencing Guidelines, Georeferencing Quick Reference Guide
georeferenceSources Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/georeferenceSources
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of maps, gazetteers, or other resources used to georeference the Location, described specifically enough to allow anyone in the future to use the same resources.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
Exampleshttps://www.geonames.org/, USGS 1:24000 Florence Montana Quad | Terrametrics 2008 on Google Earth, GeoLocate
georeferenceVerificationStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/georeferenceVerificationStatus
DefinitionA categorical description of the extent to which the georeference has been verified to represent the best possible spatial description.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesrequires verification, verified by collector, verified by curator
georeferenceRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/georeferenceRemarks
DefinitionNotes or comments about the spatial description determination, explaining assumptions made in addition or opposition to the those formalized in the method referred to in georeferenceProtocol.
Comments
ExamplesAssumed distance by road (Hwy. 101).

GeologicalContext

GeologicalContext Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/GeologicalContext
DefinitionGeological information, such as stratigraphy, that qualifies a region or place.
Comments
ExamplesA lithostratigraphic layer.
geologicalContextID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/geologicalContextID
DefinitionAn identifier for the set of information associated with a GeologicalContext (the location within a geological context, such as stratigraphy). May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to the data set.
Comments
Exampleshttps://opencontext.org/subjects/e54377f7-4452-4315-b676-40679b10c4d9
earliestEonOrLowestEonothem Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/earliestEonOrLowestEonothem
DefinitionThe full name of the earliest possible geochronologic eon or lowest chrono-stratigraphic eonothem or the informal name ("Precambrian") attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesPhanerozoic, Proterozoic
latestEonOrHighestEonothem Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/latestEonOrHighestEonothem
DefinitionThe full name of the latest possible geochronologic eon or highest chrono-stratigraphic eonothem or the informal name ("Precambrian") attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesPhanerozoic, Proterozoic
earliestEraOrLowestErathem Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/earliestEraOrLowestErathem
DefinitionThe full name of the earliest possible geochronologic era or lowest chronostratigraphic erathem attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesCenozoic, Mesozoic
latestEraOrHighestErathem Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/latestEraOrHighestErathem
DefinitionThe full name of the latest possible geochronologic era or highest chronostratigraphic erathem attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesCenozoic, Mesozoic
earliestPeriodOrLowestSystem Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/earliestPeriodOrLowestSystem
DefinitionThe full name of the earliest possible geochronologic period or lowest chronostratigraphic system attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesNeogene, Tertiary, Quaternary
latestPeriodOrHighestSystem Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/latestPeriodOrHighestSystem
DefinitionThe full name of the latest possible geochronologic period or highest chronostratigraphic system attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesNeogene, Tertiary, Quaternary
earliestEpochOrLowestSeries Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/earliestEpochOrLowestSeries
DefinitionThe full name of the earliest possible geochronologic epoch or lowest chronostratigraphic series attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesHolocene, Pleistocene, Ibexian Series
latestEpochOrHighestSeries Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/latestEpochOrHighestSeries
DefinitionThe full name of the latest possible geochronologic epoch or highest chronostratigraphic series attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesHolocene, Pleistocene, Ibexian Series
earliestAgeOrLowestStage Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/earliestAgeOrLowestStage
DefinitionThe full name of the earliest possible geochronologic age or lowest chronostratigraphic stage attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesAtlantic, Boreal, Skullrockian
latestAgeOrHighestStage Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/latestAgeOrHighestStage
DefinitionThe full name of the latest possible geochronologic age or highest chronostratigraphic stage attributable to the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesAtlantic, Boreal, Skullrockian
lowestBiostratigraphicZone Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/lowestBiostratigraphicZone
DefinitionThe full name of the lowest possible geological biostratigraphic zone of the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesMaastrichtian
highestBiostratigraphicZone Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/highestBiostratigraphicZone
DefinitionThe full name of the highest possible geological biostratigraphic zone of the stratigraphic horizon from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesBlancan
lithostratigraphicTerms Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/lithostratigraphicTerms
DefinitionThe combination of all litho-stratigraphic names for the rock from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesPleistocene-Weichselien
group Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/group
DefinitionThe full name of the lithostratigraphic group from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesBathurst, Lower Wealden
formation Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/formation
DefinitionThe full name of the lithostratigraphic formation from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesNotch Peak Formation, House Limestone, Fillmore Formation
member Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/member
DefinitionThe full name of the lithostratigraphic member from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesLava Dam Member, Hellnmaria Member
bed Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/bed
DefinitionThe full name of the lithostratigraphic bed from which the cataloged item was collected.
Comments
ExamplesHarlem coal

Identification

Identification Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/Identification
DefinitionA taxonomic determination (e.g., the assignment to a taxon).
Comments
ExamplesA subspecies determination of an organism.
identificationID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/identificationID
DefinitionAn identifier for the Identification (the body of information associated with the assignment of a scientific name). May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to the data set.
Comments
Examples9992
identificationQualifier Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/identificationQualifier
DefinitionA brief phrase or a standard term ("cf.", "aff.") to express the determiner's doubts about the Identification.
Comments
Examplesaff. agrifolia var. oxyadenia (for Quercus aff. agrifolia var. oxyadenia with accompanying values Quercus in genus, agrifolia in specificEpithet, oxyadenia in infraspecificEpithet, and var. in taxonRank. cf. var. oxyadenia for Quercus agrifolia cf. var. oxyadenia with accompanying values Quercus in genus, agrifolia in specificEpithet, oxyadenia in infraspecificEpithet, and var. in taxonRank.
typeStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/typeStatus
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of nomenclatural types (type status, typified scientific name, publication) applied to the subject.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
Examplesholotype of Ctenomys sociabilis. Pearson O. P., and M. I. Christie. 1985. Historia Natural, 5(37):388, holotype of Pinus abies | holotype of Picea abies
identifiedBy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/identifiedBy
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups, or organizations who assigned the Taxon to the subject.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
ExamplesJames L. Patton, Theodore Pappenfuss | Robert Macey
dateIdentified Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/dateIdentified
DefinitionThe date on which the subject was identified as representing the Taxon.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a date that conforms to ISO 8601:2004(E).
Examples1963-03-08T14:07-0600 (8 Mar 1963 at 2:07pm in the time zone six hours earlier than UTC). 2009-02-20T08:40Z (20 February 2009 8:40am UTC). 2018-08-29T15:19 (3:19pm local time on 29 August 2018). 1809-02-12 (some time during 12 February 1809). 1906-06 (some time in June 1906). 1971 (some time in the year 1971). 2007-03-01T13:00:00Z/2008-05-11T15:30:00Z (some time during the interval between 1 March 2007 1pm UTC and 11 May 2008 3:30pm UTC). 1900/1909 (some time during the interval between the beginning of the year 1900 and the end of the year 1909). 2007-11-13/15 (some time in the interval between 13 November 2007 and 15 November 2007).
identificationReferences Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/identificationReferences
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of references (publication, global unique identifier, URI) used in the Identification.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
ExamplesAves del Noroeste Patagonico. Christie et al. 2004., Stebbins, R. Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. 3rd Edition. 2003. | Irschick, D.J. and Shaffer, H.B. (1997). The polytypic species revisited: Morphological differentiation among tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) (Amphibia: Caudata). Herpetologica, 53(1), 30-49.
identificationVerificationStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/identificationVerificationStatus
DefinitionA categorical indicator of the extent to which the taxonomic identification has been verified to be correct.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as that used in HISPID and ABCD.
Examples0 ("unverified" in HISPID/ABCD).
identificationRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/identificationRemarks
DefinitionComments or notes about the Identification.
Comments
ExamplesDistinguished between Anthus correndera and Anthus hellmayri based on the comparative lengths of the uñas.

Taxon

Taxon Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/Taxon
DefinitionA group of organisms (sensu http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0100026) considered by taxonomists to form a homogeneous unit.
Comments
ExamplesThe genus Truncorotaloides as published by Brönnimann et al. in 1953 in the Journal of Paleontology Vol. 27(6) p. 817-820.
taxonID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonID
DefinitionAn identifier for the set of taxon information (data associated with the Taxon class). May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to the data set.
Comments
Examples8fa58e08-08de-4ac1-b69c-1235340b7001, 32567, https://www.gbif.org/species/212
scientificNameID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificNameID
DefinitionAn identifier for the nomenclatural (not taxonomic) details of a scientific name.
Comments
Examplesurn:lsid:ipni.org:names:37829-1:1.3
acceptedNameUsageID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/acceptedNameUsageID
DefinitionAn identifier for the name usage (documented meaning of the name according to a source) of the currently valid (zoological) or accepted (botanical) taxon.
Comments
Examples8fa58e08-08de-4ac1-b69c-1235340b7001
parentNameUsageID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/parentNameUsageID
DefinitionAn identifier for the name usage (documented meaning of the name according to a source) of the direct, most proximate higher-rank parent taxon (in a classification) of the most specific element of the scientificName.
Comments
Exampleshttps://www.gbif.org/species/2684876
originalNameUsageID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/originalNameUsageID
DefinitionAn identifier for the name usage (documented meaning of the name according to a source) in which the terminal element of the scientificName was originally established under the rules of the associated nomenclaturalCode.
Comments
Exampleshttps://www.gbif.org/species/2685484
nameAccordingToID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/nameAccordingToID
DefinitionAn identifier for the source in which the specific taxon concept circumscription is defined or implied. See nameAccordingTo.
Comments
Exampleshttps://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-915X(97)80026-2
namePublishedInID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/namePublishedInID
DefinitionAn identifier for the publication in which the scientificName was originally established under the rules of the associated nomenclaturalCode.
Comments
Exampleshttp://hdl.handle.net/10199/7
taxonConceptID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonConceptID
DefinitionAn identifier for the taxonomic concept to which the record refers - not for the nomenclatural details of a taxon.
Comments
Examples8fa58e08-08de-4ac1-b69c-1235340b7001
scientificName Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificName
DefinitionThe full scientific name, with authorship and date information if known. When forming part of an Identification, this should be the name in lowest level taxonomic rank that can be determined. This term should not contain identification qualifications, which should instead be supplied in the IdentificationQualifier term.
Comments
ExamplesColeoptera (order). Vespertilionidae (family). Manis (genus). Ctenomys sociabilis (genus + specificEpithet). Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli (genus + specificEpithet + infraspecificEpithet). Roptrocerus typographi (Györfi, 1952) (genus + specificEpithet + scientificNameAuthorship), Quercus agrifolia var. oxyadenia (Torr.) J.T. Howell (genus + specificEpithet + taxonRank + infraspecificEpithet + scientificNameAuthorship).
acceptedNameUsage Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/acceptedNameUsage
DefinitionThe full name, with authorship and date information if known, of the currently valid (zoological) or accepted (botanical) taxon.
Comments
ExamplesTamias minimus (valid name for Eutamias minimus).
parentNameUsage Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/parentNameUsage
DefinitionThe full name, with authorship and date information if known, of the direct, most proximate higher-rank parent taxon (in a classification) of the most specific element of the scientificName.
Comments
ExamplesRubiaceae, Gruiformes, Testudinae
originalNameUsage Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/originalNameUsage
DefinitionThe taxon name, with authorship and date information if known, as it originally appeared when first established under the rules of the associated nomenclaturalCode. The basionym (botany) or basonym (bacteriology) of the scientificName or the senior/earlier homonym for replaced names.
Comments
ExamplesPinus abies, Gasterosteus saltatrix Linnaeus 1768
nameAccordingTo Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/nameAccordingTo
DefinitionThe reference to the source in which the specific taxon concept circumscription is defined or implied - traditionally signified by the Latin "sensu" or "sec." (from secundum, meaning "according to"). For taxa that result from identifications, a reference to the keys, monographs, experts and other sources should be given.
Comments
ExamplesMcCranie, J. R., D. B. Wake, and L. D. Wilson. 1996. The taxonomic status of Bolitoglossa schmidti, with comments on the biology of the Mesoamerican salamander Bolitoglossa dofleini (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Carib. J. Sci. 32:395-398., Werner Greuter 2008. Lilljeborg 1861, Upsala Univ. Arsskrift, Math. Naturvet., pp. 4, 5
namePublishedIn Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/namePublishedIn
DefinitionA reference for the publication in which the scientificName was originally established under the rules of the associated nomenclaturalCode.
Comments
ExamplesPearson O. P., and M. I. Christie. 1985. Historia Natural, 5(37):388, Forel, Auguste, Diagnosies provisoires de quelques espèces nouvelles de fourmis de Madagascar, récoltées par M. Grandidier., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique, Comptes-rendus des Seances 30, 1886
namePublishedInYear Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/namePublishedInYear
DefinitionThe four-digit year in which the scientificName was published.
Comments
Examples1915, 2008
higherClassification Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/higherClassification
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of taxa names terminating at the rank immediately superior to the taxon referenced in the taxon record.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ), with terms in order from the highest taxonomic rank to the lowest.
ExamplesPlantae | Tracheophyta | Magnoliopsida | Ranunculales | Ranunculaceae | Ranunculus, Animalia, Animalia | Chordata | Vertebrata | Mammalia | Theria | Eutheria | Rodentia | Hystricognatha | Hystricognathi | Ctenomyidae | Ctenomyini | Ctenomys
kingdom Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/kingdom
DefinitionThe full scientific name of the kingdom in which the taxon is classified.
Comments
ExamplesAnimalia, Archaea, Bacteria, Chromista, Fungi, Plantae, Protozoa, Viruses
phylum Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/phylum
DefinitionThe full scientific name of the phylum or division in which the taxon is classified.
Comments
ExamplesChordata (phylum). Bryophyta (division).
class Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/class
DefinitionThe full scientific name of the class in which the taxon is classified.
Comments
ExamplesMammalia, Hepaticopsida
order Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/order
DefinitionThe full scientific name of the order in which the taxon is classified.
Comments
ExamplesCarnivora, Monocleales
family Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/family
DefinitionThe full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified.
Comments
ExamplesFelidae, Monocleaceae
genus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/genus
DefinitionThe full scientific name of the genus in which the taxon is classified.
Comments
ExamplesPuma, Monoclea
subgenus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/subgenus
DefinitionThe full scientific name of the subgenus in which the taxon is classified. Values should include the genus to avoid homonym confusion.
Comments
ExamplesStrobus, Amerigo, Pilosella
specificEpithet Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/specificEpithet
DefinitionThe name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName.
Comments
Examplesconcolor, gottschei
infraspecificEpithet Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/infraspecificEpithet
DefinitionThe name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation.
Comments
Examplesconcolor, oxyadenia, sayi
taxonRank Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonRank
DefinitionThe taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplessubspecies, varietas, forma, species, genus
verbatimTaxonRank Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimTaxonRank
DefinitionThe taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName as it appears in the original record.
Comments
ExamplesAgamospecies, sub-lesus, prole, apomict, nothogrex, sp., subsp., var.
scientificNameAuthorship Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificNameAuthorship
DefinitionThe authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode.
Comments
Examples(Torr.) J.T. Howell, (Martinovský) Tzvelev, (Györfi, 1952)
vernacularName Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/vernacularName
DefinitionA common or vernacular name.
Comments
ExamplesAndean Condor, Condor Andino, American Eagle, Gänsegeier
nomenclaturalCode Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/nomenclaturalCode
DefinitionThe nomenclatural code (or codes in the case of an ambiregnal name) under which the scientificName is constructed.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
ExamplesICN, ICZN, BC, ICNCP, BioCode
taxonomicStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonomicStatus
DefinitionThe status of the use of the scientificName as a label for a taxon. Requires taxonomic opinion to define the scope of a taxon. Rules of priority then are used to define the taxonomic status of the nomenclature contained in that scope, combined with the experts opinion. It must be linked to a specific taxonomic reference that defines the concept.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplesinvalid, misapplied, homotypic synonym, accepted
nomenclaturalStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/nomenclaturalStatus
DefinitionThe status related to the original publication of the name and its conformance to the relevant rules of nomenclature. It is based essentially on an algorithm according to the business rules of the code. It requires no taxonomic opinion.
Comments
Examplesnom. ambig., nom. illeg., nom. subnud.
taxonRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonRemarks
DefinitionComments or notes about the taxon or name.
Comments
Examplesthis name is a misspelling in common use

MeasurementOrFact

MeasurementOrFact Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/MeasurementOrFact
DefinitionA measurement of or fact about an rdfs:Resource (http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Resource).
CommentsResources can be thought of as identifiable records or instances of classes and may include, but need not be limited to dwc:Occurrence, dwc:Organism, dwc:MaterialSample, dwc:Event, dwc:Location, dwc:GeologicalContext, dwc:Identification, or dwc:Taxon.
ExamplesThe weight of an organism in grams. The number of placental scars. Surface water temperature in Celsius.
measurementID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementID
DefinitionAn identifier for the MeasurementOrFact (information pertaining to measurements, facts, characteristics, or assertions). May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to the data set.
Comments
Examples9c752d22-b09a-11e8-96f8-529269fb1459
measurementType Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementType
DefinitionThe nature of the measurement, fact, characteristic, or assertion.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
Examplestail length, temperature, trap line length, survey area, trap type
measurementValue Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementValue
DefinitionThe value of the measurement, fact, characteristic, or assertion.
Comments
Examples45, 20, 1, 14.5, UV-light
measurementAccuracy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementAccuracy
DefinitionThe description of the potential error associated with the measurementValue.
Comments
Examples0.01, normal distribution with variation of 2 m
measurementUnit Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementUnit
DefinitionThe units associated with the measurementValue.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use the International System of Units (SI).
Examplesmm, C, km, ha
measurementDeterminedBy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementDeterminedBy
DefinitionA list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups, or organizations who determined the value of the MeasurementOrFact.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with space vertical bar space ( | ).
ExamplesRob Guralnick, Peter Desmet | Stijn Van Hoey
measurementDeterminedDate Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementDeterminedDate
DefinitionThe date on which the MeasurementOrFact was made.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a date that conforms to ISO 8601:2004(E).
Examples1963-03-08T14:07-0600 (8 Mar 1963 at 2:07pm in the time zone six hours earlier than UTC). 2009-02-20T08:40Z (20 February 2009 8:40am UTC). 2018-08-29T15:19 (3:19pm local time on 29 August 2018). 1809-02-12 (some time during 12 February 1809). 1906-06 (some time in June 1906). 1971 (some time in the year 1971). 2007-03-01T13:00:00Z/2008-05-11T15:30:00Z (some time during the interval between 1 March 2007 1pm UTC and 11 May 2008 3:30pm UTC). 1900/1909 (some time during the interval between the beginning of the year 1900 and the end of the year 1909). 2007-11-13/15 (some time in the interval between 13 November 2007 and 15 November 2007).
measurementMethod Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementMethod
DefinitionA description of or reference to (publication, URI) the method or protocol used to determine the measurement, fact, characteristic, or assertion.
Comments
Examplesminimum convex polygon around burrow entrances (for a home range area). barometric altimeter (for an elevation).
measurementRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/measurementRemarks
DefinitionComments or notes accompanying the MeasurementOrFact.
Comments
Examplestip of tail missing

ResourceRelationship

ResourceRelationship Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/ResourceRelationship
DefinitionA relationship of one rdfs:Resource (http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Resource) to another.
CommentsResources can be thought of as identifiable records or instances of classes and may include, but need not be limited to dwc:Occurrence, dwc:Organism, dwc:MaterialSample, dwc:Event, dwc:Location, dwc:GeologicalContext, dwc:Identification, or dwc:Taxon.
ExamplesAn instance of an Organism is the mother of another instance of an Organism. A uniquely identified Occurrence represents the same Occurrence as another uniquely identified Occurrence. A MaterialSample is a subsample of another MaterialSample.
resourceRelationshipID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/resourceRelationshipID
DefinitionAn identifier for an instance of relationship between one resource (the subject) and another (relatedResource, the object).
Comments
Examples04b16710-b09c-11e8-96f8-529269fb1459
resourceID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/resourceID
DefinitionAn identifier for the resource that is the subject of the relationship.
Comments
Examplesf809b9e0-b09b-11e8-96f8-529269fb1459
relatedResourceID Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/relatedResourceID
DefinitionAn identifier for a related resource (the object, rather than the subject of the relationship).
Comments
Examplesdc609808-b09b-11e8-96f8-529269fb1459
relationshipOfResource Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/relationshipOfResource
DefinitionThe relationship of the resource identified by relatedResourceID to the subject (optionally identified by the resourceID).
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
ExamplessameAs, duplicate of, mother of, endoparasite of, host to, sibling of, valid synonym of, located within
relationshipAccordingTo Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/relationshipAccordingTo
DefinitionThe source (person, organization, publication, reference) establishing the relationship between the two resources.
Comments
ExamplesJulie Woodruff
relationshipEstablishedDate Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/relationshipEstablishedDate
DefinitionThe date-time on which the relationship between the two resources was established.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a date that conforms to ISO 8601:2004(E).
Examples1963-03-08T14:07-0600 (8 Mar 1963 at 2:07pm in the time zone six hours earlier than UTC). 2009-02-20T08:40Z (20 February 2009 8:40am UTC). 2018-08-29T15:19 (3:19pm local time on 29 August 2018). 1809-02-12 (some time during 12 February 1809). 1906-06 (some time in June 1906). 1971 (some time in the year 1971). 2007-03-01T13:00:00Z/2008-05-11T15:30:00Z (some time during the interval between 1 March 2007 1pm UTC and 11 May 2008 3:30pm UTC). 1900/1909 (some time during the interval between the beginning of the year 1900 and the end of the year 1909). 2007-11-13/15 (some time in the interval between 13 November 2007 and 15 November 2007).
relationshipRemarks Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/relationshipRemarks
DefinitionComments or notes about the relationship between the two resources.
Comments
Examplesmother and offspring collected from the same nest, pollinator captured in the act

UseWithIRI

UseWithIRI Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/attributes/UseWithIRI
DefinitionThe category of terms that are recommended to have an IRI as a value.
CommentsA utility class to organize the dwciri: terms.
Examples
inDescribedPlace Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/inDescribedPlace
DefinitionUse to link a dcterms:Location instance subject to the lowest level standardized hierarchically-described resource.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use an IRI from a controlled registry. A "convenience property" that replaces Darwin Core literal-value terms related to locations. See Section 2.7.5 of the Darwin Core RDF Guide for details.
Exampleshttp://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/1019987
identifiedBy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/identifiedBy
DefinitionA person, group, or organization who assigned the Taxon to the subject.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
recordedBy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/recordedBy
DefinitionA person, group, or organization responsible for recording the original Occurrence.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
toTaxon Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/toTaxon
DefinitionUse to link a dwc:Identification instance subject to a taxonomic entity such as a taxon, taxon concept, or taxon name use.
CommentsA "convenience property" that replaces Darwin Core literal-value terms related to taxonomic entities. See Section 2.7.4 of the Darwin Core RDF Guide for details.
Examples
inCollection Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/inCollection
DefinitionUse to link any subject resource that is part of a collection to the collection containing the resource.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use an IRI from a controlled registry. A "convenience property" that replaces literal-value terms related to collections and institutions. See Section 2.7.3 of the Darwin Core RDF Guide for details.
Examples
georeferencedBy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/georeferencedBy
DefinitionA person, group, or organization who determined the georeference (spatial representation) for the Location.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
behavior Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/behavior
DefinitionA description of the behavior shown by the subject at the time the Occurrence was recorded.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
dataGeneralizations Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/dataGeneralizations
DefinitionActions taken to make the shared data less specific or complete than in its original form. Suggests that alternative data of higher quality may be available on request.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
disposition Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/disposition
DefinitionThe current state of a specimen with respect to the collection identified in collectionCode or collectionID.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
earliestGeochronologicalEra Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/earliestGeochronologicalEra
DefinitionUse to link a dwc:GeologicalContext instance to chronostratigraphic time periods at the lowest possible level in a standardized hierarchy. Use this property to point to the earliest possible geological time period from which the cataloged item was collected.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use an IRI from a controlled vocabulary. A "convenience property" that replaces Darwin Core literal-value terms related to geological context. See Section 2.7.6 of the Darwin Core RDF Guide for details.
Examples
establishmentMeans Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/establishmentMeans
DefinitionThe process by which the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence became established at the location.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
fieldNotes Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/fieldNotes
DefinitionOne of a) an indicator of the existence of, b) a reference to (publication, URI), or c) the text of notes taken in the field about the Event.
CommentsThe subject is a dwc:Event instance and the object is a (possibly IRI-identified) resource that is the field notes.
Examples
fieldNumber Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/fieldNumber
DefinitionAn identifier given to the event in the field. Often serves as a link between field notes and the Event.
CommentsThe subject is a (possibly IRI-identified) resource that is the field notes and the object is a dwc:Event instance.
Examples
footprintSRS Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/footprintSRS
DefinitionA Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the Spatial Reference System (SRS) for the footprintWKT of the Location. Do not use this term to describe the SRS of the decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude, even if it is the same as for the footprintWKT - use the geodeticDatum instead.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
footprintWKT Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/footprintWKT
DefinitionA Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the shape (footprint, geometry) that defines the Location. A Location may have both a point-radius representation (see decimalLatitude) and a footprint representation, and they may differ from each other.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
fromLithostratigraphicUnit Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/fromLithostratigraphicUnit
DefinitionUse to link a dwc:GeologicalContext instance to an IRI-identified lithostratigraphic unit at the lowest possible level in a hierarchy.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use an IRI from a controlled vocabulary. A "convenience property" that replaces Darwin Core literal-value terms related to geological context. See Section 2.7.7 of the Darwin Core RDF Guide for details.
Examples
geodeticDatum Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/geodeticDatum
DefinitionThe ellipsoid, geodetic datum, or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geographic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude as based.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use an IRI for the EPSG code of the SRS, if known. Otherwise use an IRI or controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the geodetic datum, if known. Otherwise use an IRI or controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the ellipsoid, if known. If none of these is known, use the value unknown.
Exampleshttps://epsg.io/4326
georeferenceProtocol Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/georeferenceProtocol
DefinitionA description or reference to the methods used to determine the spatial footprint, coordinates, and uncertainties.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
georeferenceSources Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/georeferenceSources
DefinitionA map, gazetteer, or other resource used to georeference the Location.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
georeferenceVerificationStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/georeferenceVerificationStatus
DefinitionA categorical description of the extent to which the georeference has been verified to represent the best possible spatial description.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
habitat Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/habitat
DefinitionA category or description of the habitat in which the Event occurred.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
identificationQualifier Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/identificationQualifier
DefinitionA controlled value to express the determiner's doubts about the Identification.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
identificationVerificationStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/identificationVerificationStatus
DefinitionA categorical indicator of the extent to which the taxonomic identification has been verified to be correct.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects. Recommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as that used in HISPID and ABCD.
Examples
inDataset Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/inDataset
DefinitionUse to link a subject dataset record to the dataset which contains it.
CommentsA string literal name of the dataset can be provided using the term dwc:datasetName. See the Darwin Core RDF Guide for details.
Examples
informationWithheld Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/informationWithheld
DefinitionAdditional information that exists, but that has not been shared in the given record.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
latestGeochronologicalEra Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/latestGeochronologicalEra
DefinitionUse to link a dwc:GeologicalContext instance to chronostratigraphic time periods at the lowest possible level in a standardized hierarchy. Use this property to point to the latest possible geological time period from which the cataloged item was collected.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use an IRI from a controlled vocabulary. A "convenience property" that replaces Darwin Core literal-value terms related to geological context. See Section 2.7.6 of the Darwin Core RDF Guide for details.
Examples
lifeStage Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/lifeStage
DefinitionThe age class or life stage of the biological individual(s) at the time the Occurrence was recorded.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
locationAccordingTo Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/locationAccordingTo
DefinitionInformation about the source of this Location information. Could be a publication (gazetteer), institution, or team of individuals.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
measurementDeterminedBy Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/measurementDeterminedBy
DefinitionA person, group, or organization who determined the value of the MeasurementOrFact.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
measurementMethod Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/measurementMethod
DefinitionThe method or protocol used to determine the measurement, fact, characteristic, or assertion.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
measurementType Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/measurementType
DefinitionThe nature of the measurement, fact, characteristic, or assertion.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
measurementUnit Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/measurementUnit
DefinitionThe units associated with the measurementValue.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use the International System of Units (SI).
Examples
occurrenceStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/occurrenceStatus
DefinitionA statement about the presence or absence of a Taxon at a Location.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
organismQuantityType Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/organismQuantityType
DefinitionThe type of quantification system used for the quantity of organisms.
CommentsA dwc;organismQuantityType must have a corresponding dwc:organismQuantity.
Examples
preparations Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/preparations
DefinitionA preparation or preservation method for a specimen.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
recordNumber Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/recordNumber
DefinitionAn identifier given to the Occurrence at the time it was recorded. Often serves as a link between field notes and an Occurrence record, such as a specimen collector's number.
CommentsThe subject is a dwc:Occurrence and the object is a (possibly IRI-identified) resource that is the field notes.
Examples
reproductiveCondition Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/reproductiveCondition
DefinitionThe reproductive condition of the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
sampleSizeUnit Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/sampleSizeUnit
DefinitionThe unit of measurement of the size (time duration, length, area, or volume) of a sample in a sampling event.
CommentsA sampleSizeUnit must have a corresponding sampleSizeValue. Recommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary such as the Ontology of Units of Measure http://www.wurvoc.org/vocabularies/om-1.8/ of SI units, derived units, or other non-SI units accepted for use within the SI.
Examplesminute, hour, day, metre, square metre, cubic metre
samplingProtocol Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/samplingProtocol
DefinitionThe method or protocol used during an Event.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
sex Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/sex
DefinitionThe sex of the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
typeStatus Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/typeStatus
DefinitionA nomenclatural type (type status, typified scientific name, publication) applied to the subject.
CommentsTerms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
verbatimCoordinateSystem Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/verbatimCoordinateSystem
DefinitionThe spatial coordinate system for the verbatimLatitude and verbatimLongitude or the verbatimCoordinates of the Location.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary. Terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects.
Examples
verbatimSRS Property
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/verbatimSRS
DefinitionThe ellipsoid, geodetic datum, or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which coordinates given in verbatimLatitude and verbatimLongitude, or verbatimCoordinates are based.
CommentsRecommended best practice is to use an IRI for the EPSG code of the SRS, if known. Otherwise use an IRI or controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the geodetic datum, if known. Otherwise use an IRI or controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the ellipsoid, if known. If none of these is known, use the value unknown.
ExamplesEPSG:4326, WGS84, NAD27, Campo Inchauspe, European 1950, Clarke 1866, unknown

LivingSpecimen

LivingSpecimen Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/LivingSpecimen
DefinitionA specimen that is alive.
Comments
ExamplesA living plant in a botanical garden. A living animal in a zoo.

PreservedSpecimen

PreservedSpecimen Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/PreservedSpecimen
DefinitionA specimen that has been preserved.
Comments
ExamplesA plant on an herbarium sheet. A cataloged lot of fish in a jar.

FossilSpecimen

FossilSpecimen Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/FossilSpecimen
DefinitionA preserved specimen that is a fossil.
Comments
ExamplesA body fossil. A coprolite. A gastrolith. An ichnofossil. A piece of a petrified tree.

HumanObservation

HumanObservation Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/HumanObservation
DefinitionAn output of a human observation process.
Comments
ExamplesEvidence of an Occurrence taken from field notes or literature. A record of an Occurrence without physical evidence nor evidence captured with a machine.

MachineObservation

MachineObservation Class
Identifierhttp://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/MachineObservation
DefinitionAn output of a machine observation process.
Comments
ExamplesA photograph. A video. An audio recording. A remote sensing image. A Occurrence record based on telemetry.